Saturday, September 19, 2009

Tuesday, July 28, 2009

new show:PAST LIVES


Recent Video and Photography by Apichatpong Weerasethakul

Curated by Brian Curtin

Gallery Soulflower, Basement Level, Silom Galleria, Bangkok
2 September – 3 October 2009

Opening Reception and Book Launch:
Wednesday, 2 September, from 5.00pm
RSVP: Ms. Oui +662 630 0032

Gallery Soulflower is delighted to announce an exhibition of new works by the acclaimed filmmaker and artist Apichatpong Weerasethakul. A book detailing Weerasethakul’s oeuvre and edited by the art critic and curator Brian Curtin will be launched on the opening night.

Past Lives showcases a selection of videos from Weerasethakul’s current Primitive Project with a series of related photographs. Themes of memory and space, reincarnation and transformation, and the supernatural permeate the extraordinary visual rhetoric of Weerasethakul’s images. Inspired by a book written by a monk about a man who could recall his previous lives, Past Lives offers a substantial insight into the artist’s current exploration of aspects of political and cultural history in Thailand. The videos and photographs in Past Lives are based in the Thai village of Nabua, one the places the Thai army occupied from the 1960s to the early 1980s in order to curb so-called communist insurgents. Nabua is also part of a district famed for its legend of the ‘widow ghost’, a spirit that steals the souls of men as they sleep. Weerasethakul re-imagines this rural terrain in terms of memory and myth and reveals a portrait of contemporary lives illuminated by the spirits of history.

The accompanying book includes interviews by Brian Curtin and the writer Lawrence Chua and a specially commissioned essay by the Berlin-based academic Arnika Fuhrmann.

Gallery Soulflower
B1, Basement Level, The Silom Galleria, Soi Silom 19, Silom Road, Bangkok 10500, Thailand.

Phone: + 66-26300032, 860821573, 870302491

Fax: +66-26300032

Thursday, May 28, 2009

The Irony of Dreams

A new exhibition questions the meanings of dreams
Published: 28/05/2009 at 12:00 AM
Newspaper section: Outlook
'I dreamed that I turned blue and my sex changed; drenched, gracefully delving deep into the polluted Yamuna, I rose again, spiritually revived, from the base of a textile motif whose origin I knew not; like a blue willow branch drooping, I curved my feminised torso and transfigured it into a stag, yet with my feminine face and need for jewels intact; while roaming freely in a golden paddy field, a big golden proscenium arch fell and captured me within; suddenly I turned into a flamboyantly naked 'Venus of the modern day' keeping two bearded French gentlemen company at lunch on the grass, then a Thai farmer looked into the frame and ventured I'd ripped my clothes away because the weather was too hot!"

A work by Sheba Chhachhi at ‘Dreaming in Public’.
Indeed, in dreams, fantastic logics operate. Especially in "Dreaming in Public" - Gallery Soulflower's latest contribution to the Bangkok contemporary art scene - thoughts and identities amorphously flow, in and out, here and there. But not long before you wake up, a large golden frame drops and cages you in, and that's when you realise - as Gerard Staunton's commentary on the show has it - "we dream in company even when dreaming alone."
Dreaming in Public encapsulates this paradox. According to the curator, Brian Curtin, the show seeks to "challenge normative notions of dreaming and explore intersections with the public/collective". The group exhibition "asks how notions of both 'dreaming' and 'public' may be understood less by their juxtaposition than mutual infiltration".
Visitors are first welcomed by Jakkai Siributr's "Pendulums of Dream", as I shall dub it, whose collective swaying character, as well as his other fabric works, renders the aesthetic of the ethereal, hypnotic and dream-like. Although each of these dream amulets was coarsely embroidery-stitched to narrate very personal stories behind their symbolic meaning - the collective culture of superstition - the very attempt of ours to decode this cultural symbol "imbues public forms with personal meaning" and vice versa.
The works of Sheba Chhachhi and Hema Upadhyay, too, employ such cultural symbols - as an elephant, the Taj Mahal, Indian mythological beings and goddesses and Indian textile patterns - to address social issues in creative ways that cause you to raise your eyebrows. Indeed, in Dreaming in Public, "the imagined moves to the real; from the esoteric to the revealed; from the personal to the collective - a code to decode," said the curator.
Rendering fuzzy the boundary between public and private, Curtin's definition of dream is not confined to the nebulous realm of our innermost thoughts and feelings, but pushed to another level so as to equate the artwork itself with how we read it.
Indeed, Curtin's latest curatorial effort proffers that inasmuch as dreams are interpreted to be understood, art, too, needs such a process to make private indulgence "intelligible" - another code to decode - turning the private into the public. Araya Rasdjarmrearnsook's series of international encounters between French masterpieces (all, accidentally, are from the renowned Musee d'Orsay) and Thai villagers/farmers are the work in point here.
Although comments have been made about these pieces of hers being displayed elsewhere before, Curtin's problematisation of "dreaming" has enriched the context in which Araya's works are to be understood and appreciated.
As Curtin has it, "Araya's works fit the theme in terms of the intersection of private/public. The farmers' discussion of the French paintings follows the logic of dreams: Spontaneous, unlearned, wildly discursive, etc. Furthermore, Araya's video works are more broadly a consideration of the public reception/consumption of artworks: The farmers trying to decode the French artists' paintings and us decoding Araya's videos. Dreaming has to do with the imagination and imagining life differently; the farmers' interpretations have nothing to do with sanctioned meaning; this should inspire us to imagine things differently also."
However, given several functions dreams are said to have in regard to the self and its subjectivity - either as projection, distortion or wish fulfilment - theorisation such as that of Michel Foucault's "technology of the self" and the inseparability of subjectivity and subjugation poses the question of how "different" and "private" our innermost thoughts can be. After all, we ourselves are the product of a larger political-economic and cultural discourse. Araya's video work Van Gogh's The Midday Sleep and the Thai villagers (2007) succinctly addresses this nuanced point: The local Thais' decoding of the Van Gogh - as they try to make out what possible lotto numerals Van Gogh's sickles can be made out into - reveals the typical and collective economic anxiety of the Thai grass roots and how people feel, either unconsciously or consciously, pressured (by governmental rationality) they haven't done enough - apart from the concern over their personal wealth - as economic actors contributing to the nation's GDP.
Dreaming in Public is one of the best thought-out international exhibitions that Bangkok has seen in years. It shows how curatorial manoeuvring can greatly benefit contemporary art.
'Dreaming in Public' is on view at Gallery Soulflower, basement level, Silom Galleria, until July 27. Call 02-630-0032, 08-6082-1573 or 08-7030-2491 or visit

Critics and Media on Dreaming In Public

The Nation May 2009

Krungthep Thurakit

Bangkok Post 28 May 2009

Monday, May 25, 2009

opening of DREAMING IN PUBLIC,Gallery Soulflower, May 15 2009, Bangkok, Thailand

Present at the show were Indian Ambassador H.E. Latha Reddy, Nepal Ambassador H.E. Navin Prakash Jung Shah, H.E. Rodolphe Imhoof Ambassador of Switzerland with several other prominent writers and curators from all over the world including Brian Mertens, Steven Pettifor, Ark Fongsmut, Apisak Sonjud.

Also present were the artists Manit Sriwanichpoom, Kamin Lertchaiprasert,Vasan Sitthiket,Surasi Kusolwong, Araya Rasdjarmrearnsook,Thavorn Koudomvit and many other Thai artists.
Also present was Artist Sheba Chhachhi who had flown in specially for the opening and Book launch.

The show is curated by Dr. Brian Curtin and participating artists are Hema Upadhyay and Sheba Chhachhi from India and Jakkai Siributr and Araya Rasdjarmrearnsook from Thailand.

พิธีเปิดงานนิทรรศการศิลปและเปิดตัวหนังสือ “ฝันกลางฝูงชน” ของหอศิลป์ร่วมสมัยอินเดียและไทย แกเลอรี่โซลฟลาเวอร์
โดยในงานพิธีเปิดได้รับเกียรติจาก เอกคราชทูต อินเดีย ท่าน ลัดธา เรดดี กล่าวเปิดงาน, ท่าน นาวิน ปราเกซ จุง ซาห์ เอกคราชทูตเนปาล และ เอกคราชทูตจากสวิสเซอแลนด์ มิสเตอร์ ราโดฟี อิมฮอฟ โดยในงานมีนักเขียนและภัณฑรักษ์ชื่อดัง คุณ ไบรอัน เมอณ์เทน คุณ สตีเฟ่น เพททิฟอ คุณ อรรย์ ฟองสมุทธ คุณ อภิศักดิ์ สนจุด
อีกทั้งศิลปินชื่อดังของเมืองไทย คุณ มานิตย์ ศรีวานิชภูมิ คุณ คามิน เลิศชัยประเสริฐ คุณ วสันต์ สิทธิเขต คุณ สุรีย์ กุศลวงศ์ คุณ อารยา ราชจำเริญสุข คุณ ถาวร โกอุดมวิทย์ และศิลปินอีกหลากหลายท่าน คุณ ชีบา ชัคชี ได้บินตรงจากอินเดีย เพื่อมาร่วมงานนี้โดยเฉพาะ
งานนิทรรศการศิลปครั้งนี้สร้างสรรค์โดย ดอกเตอร์ ไบรอัน เคอทิน ได้ทำงานร่วมศิลปินอินเดีย คุณ ชีบา ชัคชี คุณ เฮมา อุปธัย ศิลปินไทย คุณ จักกาย ศิริบุตร และ คุณ อารยา ราชจำเริญสุข .

The show is on till July 25th 2009 at
Gallery Soulflower
B1, Basement Level, The Silom Galleria, Soi Silom 19, Silom Road, Bangkok 10500, Thailand.
Phone: + 66-26300032, 860821573, 870302491
Fax: +66-26300032

Sunday, May 10, 2009

Dreaming in Public

Dreaming in Public

Curated by Brian Curtin

Sheba Chhachhi
Araya Rasdjarmrearnsook
Jakkai Siributr
Hema Upadhyay

Gallery Soulflower, Basement Level, Silom Galleria, Bangkok
15 May – 25 July 2009

Opening Reception and Book Launch:
Friday, 15 May, from 6.30pm
RSVP: Ms. Oui +6626300032

Her Excellency Latha Reddy, Indian Ambassador to Thailand is the chief guest of the event.
the artists will be in attendance on the opening night.

Gallery Soulflower is delighted to announce its first major exhibition and publication for 2009. Dreaming in Public showcases new work by major artists from India and Thailand. The title is a definition of visual art that gains its potency because of a variety of implications. Dreaming can refer to unconscious thought processes, the infinite and amorphous world of the imagination, extrasensory perception, desire and ambition in terms of change, ideal experience and much more in terms of theory and history. The idea of public, on the other hand, is definitively distinct from general notions of the private and the personal commonly afforded to the state of dreaming. Ideas of public include community and consensus. Dreaming in Public asks how notions of both ‘dreaming’ and ‘public’ may be affected less by their juxtaposition than mutual infiltration. How are notions of private and non-private, personal and impersonal, free-will and societal structures, the conscious and unconscious and individual desires for a life different from contemporary realities understood through visual art? Dreaming in Public aims to focus on a certain radicalism implied by this title. Each of the artists draws on the rich suggestions of an ostensible dichotomy between different spheres of experience to insist on the challenge of forms of subjectivity implied by the idea of ‘dreaming’. The artworks included variously ask us to look anew at major issues with contemporary art practices: issues that include globalization, national identity, the influence of canonical art histories, and the cultural significance of particular media.

Dreaming in Public

Curator ฝั น ก ล า ง ฝู ง ช น

ดร. ไบรอัน เคอร์ติน

ชีบา ชฮาชิ
Sheba Chhachhi
อารยา ราษฎร์จำเริญสุข Araya Rasdjarmrearnsook
จักกาย ศิริบุตร Jakkai Siributr
เฮมา อุปัธยาย Hema Upadhyay

หอศิลป์ โซลฟลาวเวอร์ ชั้นใต้ดิน สีลมแกเลอเรีย กรุงเทพฯ
15 พฤษภาคม – 25 มิถุนายน 2552

วันศุกร์ที่ 15 พฤษภาคม ตั้งแต่ 18.30 น.Friday, 15 May, from 6.30pm
สำรองที่ โทร +66 (0)2630-0032 (คุณอุ๋ย)

ฯพณฯ นางลาธา เรดดี (Latha Reddy) เอกอัครราชฑุตอินเดียประจำประเทศไทย
และศิลปินทุกคน จะร่วมเป็นเกียรติในพิธีเปิด

หอศิลป์ โซลฟลาวเวอร์ ยินดีประกาศการเปิดนิทรรศการและเปิดตัวหนังสือสำคัญสำหรับปี 2552.

Dreaming in Public (ฝันกลางฝูงชน) นำเสนอผลงานใหม่โดยศิลปินชั้นนำจากอินเดียและไทย. ชื่อของนิทรรศการนี้ มาจากนิยามของทัศนศิลป์ในฐานะที่มีพลังสื่อนัย ส่อความหมาย ได้หลายหลาก. การฝัน (dreaming) โยงใยไปถึงกระบวนการคิดในระดับไร้สำนึก, ไปถึงโลกแห่งจินตนาการอันไร้ขอบเขตและมีรูปไหลลื่น, "อุตริมนุษยผัสสะ", แีรงปรารถนาและแรงทะยานอยาก ที่จะพลิกฟ้าพลิกดิน, ประสบการณ์ในอุดมคติ อีกทั้งยังเชื่อมโยงไปถึงทฤษฎีและภูมิหลัง ต่างๆอีกมากมาย. ในทางตรงกันข้าม แนวคิดว่าด้วย สาธารณะ (the public) ย่อมมีนัยต่างขั้วกับ "รโหสภาพ" (the private) และเรื่องส่วนตัว (the personal) ซึ่งเป็นสภาวะที่มีสิทธิในการ "ฝัน". ในขณะัที่แนวคิดเรื่องสาธารณสภาวะ เป็นเรื่องของ ชุมชนคนจำนวนมาก เป็นเรื่องของฉันทามติ คือข้อตกลงร่วมกันของคนหลายคน.

Dreaming in Public ถามว่า โลกส่วนตัวแห่งการฝันกับโลกส่วนรวมสาธารณ์อาจได้รับผลกระทบจากการเทียบเคียง กัน น้อยกว่าได้รับผลจากการที่โลกทั้งสองส่งอิทธิพลต่อกัน. แล้วความแตกต่าง ระหว่างรโหสภาพ (private) กับ อรโหสภาพ (non-private), ระหว่างโลกส่วนตัวกับโลกส่วนรวม, ระหว่างเจตจำนงเสรีกับกรอบกำักับสังคม, ระหว่างจิตสำนึกกับจิตไร้สำนึก และ ระหว่างแรงปรารถนาของปัจเจกบุคคลที่มีต่อชีวิตของตน กับความเป็นจริงร่วมสมัยที่เข้าใจไ้้ด้จากทัศนศิลป์ เป็นอย่างไร? Dreaming in Public พุ่งประเด็นไปที่ความต่างอย่างสุดโต่ง อย่างที่ชื่อบอกไว้. ศิลปินแต่ละคนต่างเสนอสาระระหว่างปริมณฑลแห่งประสพการณ์ต่าง ขั้ว เพื่อยืนยันการท้าทายรูปแบบต่างๆที่อัตวิสัยกำหนดนัยให้ความหมายของ "การฝัน". ศิลปะในนิทรรศการนี้ ตั้งคำถามสารพัดใส่เรา ให้เราเพ่งพินิจถึงประเด็นสำคัญอันเกี่ยวพันกับกิจกรรมศิลปะร่วมสมัย; นั่นคือเรื่องว่าด้วย โลกาภิืวัตน์, อัตลักษณ์ของชาติ, อิทธิพลจากจารีตทางประวัติศาสตร์ศิลป์, และ นัยสำคัญทางวัฒนธรรมของสื่อบางจำพวก.

Wednesday, March 4, 2009


critics and media on DEEP STORAGE ART PROJECT

Deepest storage on Earth

Danish conceptual artist gathers Bangkokian blood to send it to the bottom of the ocean

Published: 12/03/2009 at 12:00 AM
Newspaper section: Outlook

' Welcome to eternal life," smiles Danish artist Kristian von Hornsleth as he poses for the camera with a contributor clasping a certificate stained with a sample of their own blood. The participants had just donated their DNA to be included with a sculpture that will be exhibited at the bottom of the Mariana Trench - the deepest destination on Earth.

Hornsleth, a conceptual artist with a controversial reputation in his own country for provocative art antics, is visiting Thailand for a live event as part of the "Deep Storage Art Project" world tour. He made international headlines in 2006 for his Hornsleth Village Project, which involved exchanging pigs and goats with 300 residents of a Ugandan village in exchange for changing their name to Hornsleth with the slogan, "We want to help you, but we want to own you."

This project goes with the tag line "There is no product, there is only marketing". Indeed, there is no art as such for sale as the 5x5x5m chemically enhanced steel sculpture, which will resemble something like a supernova and encapsulate 5,000 samples of DNA, is intended to be dropped at 12 55' 25" N / 166 11' 59" E (between Japan and the Philippines) in November next year.

You might ask, what's the point of making a sculpture no one will be able to see? Well, the answer is simply conceptual art is the art of ideas - not objects - or, as Hornsleth puts it, "intellectual merchandising".

"I want to make a monument to humanity. In this world there is a lot of thinking about high places like Everest and outer space, but not low, so I wanted to do something downward, with connotations of being deep not only physically and geographically, but mentally as well," said Hornsleth, speaking on Saturday night at Gallery Soulflower at the first of two scheduled live events.

"This project is about eternal life on both a scientific and poetic level. I want the people who donate their blood to have a relationship with the sculpture that is lasting. They will always know that they have a part of themselves in the deepest, darkest, furthest possible place on Earth it could be. It's possible that sometime in the future the sculpture could be returned to the surface and the DNA inside used to recreate the donors as new human beings," he said.

"Another aspect of the project is we are collecting stuff, not distributing it as artists normally would. This is a simulation of scientific research and how scientists research and exhibit," he added.

Of course, when selling ideas and not objects it makes it more difficult for a post-modern conceptual artist such as Hornsleth to make a living. To overcome this economic hurdle, Hornsleth markets posters he defaces with his trademark "paint ball" technique of confused colours and "Hornsleth" signature that he emblazons across the middle.

These posters usually sell in Denmark for 5,000 (229,000 baht), with one larger poster selling for a record price of 150,000 (6.85 million baht). However, the artist has adjusted the price to suit the circumstances here, where he is not yet well known. Also, only 1,000 of the 5,000 donors having their blood dropped to the depths will receive a certificate signed by the artist for free - everybody else has to pay $1,000 (36,100 baht).

Not bad for an idea.

Later, sculptures and bronze models of the 5m sculpture will also be for sale.

"Really, the idea of all my work is to hold a mirror up to people. I'm a provocateur, but I'm not mocking. My point is that now society has become a "Dictatorship of the Consumer". The consumer decides everything and has the power to change the world - to stop war, to stop famine, to stop all the social evils, but the consumer doesn't use that power," said Hornsleth.

This conceptualist has begun his own branch of post-modern art he calls "Futilism", which deals with the frustrations of our time and is complete with its own manifesto, the Futilist Manifest. The introduction reads, "Art is art when it's not art. As soon as it's defined as art it's dead."

In the first line he writes, "Futilism is the philosophy of opening doors to the hidden, to the illicit, and to what is beyond the obscure, the rational and apparently meaningful aspects of culture."

Bangkokian blood will continue to flow tonight between 5 and 8pm at Gallery Soulflower, Silom Galleria. But with only 50 of the 100 free contributors allocated to Thailand in the project remaining, you had better be early if you wish to avoid paying in more than blood to have a part of you sunk to the bottom of the sea - not to mention achieving immortality.

If you're concerned that Kristian von Hornsleth's invitation for you to make art with your own ichor is not fine art, don't worry; just follow one of the maxims brazenly displayed on an earlier painting that reads, "Don't Worry This Is Art", which, because it isn't, is. Or is it?

The second stage of 'Deep Storage Art Project' will be held tonight between 5 and 8pm at Gallery Soulflower, 309 Silom Galleria. Call 02-630-0032 or visit

Tuesday, March 3, 2009


Live forever! Let me put your blood in the Marina Trench

Kristian von Hornsleth

Gallery Soulflower is delighted to announce an ambitious and provocative project by KRISTIAN VON HORNSLETH, the artist from Denmark. Gallery Soulflower, Basement Level, Silom Galleria, Bangkok

Live Event for one day only
Please join us for cocktails Saturday, 7 March 2009, from 6.30pm
RSVP: Ms. Oui +662 630 0032

The artist will be present along with a live television team from Denmark, who will document the whole process.

GIVE YOUR BLOOD AND LIVE FOREVER WITH HORNSLETH Kristian von Hornsleth’s upcoming project "Deep Storage Project", will give all Hornsleth-lovers the opportunity to live forever.

In November 2009 a gigantic sculpture with the measures 5 x 5 x 5 meter will be put down into the 11 kilometer deep Marianer grave, between Japan and The Philippines.
The sculpture, which is being made in a special resistant shape, will contain thousands of DNA samples from declared Hornsleth-lovers.

The artwork Deep Storage takes place in the idea of re-production and eternal life. Imaging that this sculpture is found by creatures of the future and that the DNA samples will be used to create new human beings.
What connects these people, and what are the criteria of selection?
Another important element in Deep Storage is the impact it will have on the participants. Some of them are lying there in the scariest, dark and far away from home places in the world. Somewhere between the bottom of the sea the DNA will exist and that can become a constant source of disturbia, thoughtfulness and mind confusing for the participants.


1. Give a drop-sample of one's blood to be saved in the Deep Storage Project.
2. Sign and put another drop of your blood on a Deep Storage declaration.
3. The Declarations are signed and numbered by Hornsleth
4. The declarations are art pieces for the donor.
5. Each declaration can either be a paper certificate for free or a painting at various prices.

Hornsleth is collecting blood
By art historian Wolf-Günther Thiel
What does it mean when artists begin to define themselves by collecting objects, rather than creating them? Artists simulate scientific research by exhibiting things they have gathered, categorized, documented, counted, archived, stacked and stored by analogical thinking as Michel Foucault puts it. Others are documenting, counting, and archiving aspects of their lives and making objects that record these processes. Kristian von Hornsleth plays on this idea and deconstructs it by mystification of the act of archiving as well as storing the archives. The idea is to create a story like Homers Ellias and make people part of that story which people may tell in the future to understand our times from a future perspective. Hornsleth claims the position of an artist as an "Übermensch".
Kristian von Hornsleth is collecting blood and DNA of people who are dedicated Hornsleth art lovers. In earlier times of civilization we would call it a tribal ritus in order to manifest their existence in a far away mythological future: A tribal ritus of the Hornsleth tribe. Hornsleth himself as the schamane of his own people conserves their cultural existence. His artistic act is a synonym for the cave paintings, which show tribal hunting scenes in the pre-historical times of human existence. The wish is the documentation of existence as deep storage of DNA as part of the individual blood proof. The technological believe in progressive natural sciences evokes the idea of another cycle of existence in a far away future. The believe is that future science can evoke the today human individual through their DNA. Hornsleth himself speaks of this possibility of a second existence. Earlier civilizations would have respected an approach like this as "übermenschlich". Friedrich Nietzsche, the german philosopher. wrote 1883 the book: Thus Spoke Zarathustra. The book's protagonist, Zarathustra, contends that "man is something which ought to be overcome:"All beings so far have created something beyond themselves; and do you want to be the ebb of this great flood and even go back to the beasts rather than overcome man?" Übermensch: The German prefix über can have connotations of superiority, transcendence, excessiveness, or intensity, depending on the words to which it is appended. Mensch refers to members of the human species, rather than to men specifically. The adjective übermenschlich means beyond human strength or out of proportion to humanity. Zarathustra first announces the Übermensch as a goal humanity can set for itself. All human life would be given meaning by how it advanced a new generation of human beings. The modern idea of all men are created equal and the base of modern idea of democratic rights are clearly contradicted by Nietzsches approach. Another aspect of Nietzsches concepts is of importance to the understanding of Hornsleths "deep storage" project: The eternal recurrence of the same. We like to understand this concept like this: The eternal recurrence replaces the Übermensch as the object of serious aspiration. The Übermensch lies in the future — no historical figures have ever been Übermenschen — and so still represents a sort of eschatological redemption in some future time. This promise of being part of this future time and existence is the promise Hornsleth suggests. The Übermensch of this future times is to create new values, untainted by the spirit of gravity or asceticism. Hornsleth and his own created mystical mythology hints clearly at Nietzsches concepts and suggests a way out of the contemporary disasters of modern times and their human individuals. As long as you believe in Hornsleth you believe in a future and in a human value systems. This will be documented or monumented through the "deep storage project." It will be stored at one of the deepest place on earth the "marianer grave". At the same time as it is a sign for "memento mori" it is a sign for future believes in individual existences.